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新一轮环保风暴下 国内红木家具企业该如何应对

  • 发布日期: 2018-10-27

根据生态环境部印发的《2018-2019年蓝天保卫战重点区域强化督查方案》,第二轮环保督查于8月20日启动强化督查,持续到2019年4月28日结束。
 
The second round of environmental supervision started on August 20 and ended on April 28, 2019, according to the "Plan for Intensive Supervision of Key Areas in Blue Sky Defense War 2018-2019" issued by the Ministry of Ecological Environment.
 
 
 
新一轮环保风暴,覆盖2+26城市、汾渭平原、长三角和珠三角地区的各制造业,红木家具行业也不例外。在上一轮环保督查中,红木企业已反映出和调整了很多生产和设备上的问题,接下来该如何持续改善和做好环保问题,全联艺术红木家具专业委员会专家顾问、中国红木家具技术专家曹新民,给出5点建议。
 
A new round of environmental storm, covering the 2 + 26 cities, Fenwei Plain, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta manufacturing industry, mahogany furniture industry is no exception. In the last round of environmental supervision, mahogany enterprises have reflected and adjusted a lot of production and equipment problems, and then how to continue to improve and do a good job in environmental protection issues, the United Art Mahogany Furniture Committee expert consultant, China mahogany furniture expert Cao Xinmin, gives five suggestions.
 
 
 
 
企业家要学好两部国家大法
 
Entrepreneurs should learn two major national laws
 
 
 
作为国内首个红木产业集群,广东省中山市大涌镇经历四十余载发展,在当前产业升级中理应向绿色、智慧、可持续方向发展。企业家应当清楚自己的社会职责,要学好、守好《中华人民共和国环境保护法》《中华人民共和国清洁生产促进法》两部国家大法。主动承担环境治理中企业的责任,提升治理水平。
 
As the first rosewood industrial cluster in China, Dayong Town, Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, has undergone more than 40 years of development. It should develop in a green, intelligent and sustainable direction in the current industrial upgrading. Entrepreneurs should be aware of their social responsibilities and learn and abide by the Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China and the Cleaner Production Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China. Take the initiative to undertake the responsibility of enterprises in environmental governance and raise the level of governance.
 
 
 
干燥、特种干燥、零件材干燥是技术关注点
 
Drying, special drying and drying of parts are the focus of technology.
 
 
 
木材干燥约占红木家具工厂能耗70%,眼下热能成本呈逐年增高趋势,大涌两大产业的集中供热短期难以解决,小锅炉禁烧期已临近,因而红木企业锯材干燥对新型热能的需求十分紧迫,要尽快从战略层面解决,要有大动作,这不是一家企业的问题。未来红木家具企业必然要向节能、高效、环保的干燥工艺和先进装备方面,加大科技更改资金的投资力度。要将单一的蒸汽热能转向太阳能、电能、工业高温热泵等多种新能源的共用方向发展。有条件的企业还可联合起来建立光伏发电系统,充分利用国家支持政策,降低木材干燥中电耗成本。联合干燥、特种干燥、零件材干燥等都将是今后“大涌干燥”技术进步的关注点。
 
Wood drying accounts for about 70% of the energy consumption in mahogany furniture factories. At present, the cost of heat energy is increasing year by year. It is difficult to solve the problem of central heating in two big industries in Dayong in the short term. The prohibition period of small boilers is approaching. Therefore, the demand for new-type heat energy in sawn timber drying of mahogany enterprises is very urgent. It's not a business problem. The future mahogany furniture enterprises will inevitably increase the investment of scientific and technological change funds to energy-saving, efficient, environmental-friendly drying technology and advanced equipment. The single steam thermal energy should be transferred to the common direction of solar energy, electric energy, industrial high temperature heat pump and other new energy sources. Conditional enterprises can also unite to establish photovoltaic power generation system, make full use of state support policies, reduce the cost of electricity consumption in wood drying. Combined drying, special drying and parts drying will be the focus of future technological progress of "gushing drying".
 
 
 
确保“共性工厂”技术的成熟和可靠性
 
Ensure the maturity and reliability of "common factory" technology.
 
 
 
红木家具制造企业高毒物质危害治理的重点之一是喷漆、晾漆环节。中山市大涌镇“共性工厂”的建成,尝试以集约化手段解决中小型家具企业喷漆尾气、废水处理问题,为行业走出了一条新路、创造了新鲜的经验。对于“共性工厂”要确保技术的成熟和可靠性;要建立标准化的可操作、可追踪的管理系统;要利用信息化技术实现对“共性工厂”所有工艺环节的智能化监测。“共性工厂”在现阶段实际上是对红木产业链的一种完善和优化,而不是价值链,因此在大涌的布局要论证、要加快,不以追求效益为主要目的。对“共性工厂”,政府应严监管、零容忍。
 
One of the keys to harnessing harmful substances in mahogany furniture manufacturing enterprises is painting and drying. The construction of "commonness factory" in Dayong Town, Zhongshan City, attempted to solve the problems of paint exhaust gas and waste water treatment in small and medium furniture enterprises by intensive means, which paved a new way for the industry and created new experience. For the "common factory" to ensure the maturity and reliability of technology; to establish a standardized operational, traceable management system; to use information technology to achieve the "common factory" all the process of intelligent monitoring. "Common factory" is actually a perfection and optimization of the rosewood industrial chain at this stage, not the value chain. Therefore, the layout of Dayong should be demonstrated and accelerated, not for the main purpose of pursuing efficiency. For the "common factories", the government should strictly supervise and tolerate zero tolerance.
 
 
 
车间必须安装通风除尘系统 新上系统一定要小
 
Workshop must install ventilation and dust removal system, new system must be small.
 
 
 
红木家具工厂产生的木粉尘也是危害治理的重点之一,相对现代家具企业,红木家具企业的职业危害程度要严重,工人生产环境比较差,车间必须安装通风除尘系统,经处理达到大气污染物综合排放标准(GB16297-1996)后排放,让厂房内空气得到净化。除大企业的下料车间外,除尘系统不应大。实木工厂的除尘系统不适合红木家具工厂的劳动组织架构,在除尘系统开机后往往木工机床的开机率不足所对应抽风罩口的将近一半。这不仅造成系统开机使用率不高(电耗浪费太大)、投资成本大、且作用发挥也不好。由于气力除尘设计涉及主管路内的压力平衡,一旦建成则不易改动。今后上系统前,对系统范围内的工艺生产路径一定要科学设计,不能沿袭旧制,除尘系统设计一定要符合行情。建议新上系统一定要小、多个小系统组合而成,特别是多层工业厂房,处理风量每小时在l0000~l5000立方米之间,采用负压风动布袋除尘原理,内部超低压技术,风机内置、自动清灰,开机时智能感应、自动调控(可变风量、风压)、节能降耗。
 
Wood dust produced by mahogany furniture factories is also one of the key hazards. Compared with modern furniture enterprises, the occupational hazards of mahogany furniture enterprises are more serious, and the working environment is worse. Ventilation and dust removal systems must be installed in the workshops, which are discharged after reaching the comprehensive emission standards of atmospheric pollutants (GB16297-1996). The air in the room is purified. Except for the unloading workshop of large enterprises, the dust removal system should not be large. Dust removal system in solid wood factories is not suitable for the labor organization structure of mahogany furniture factories. When the dust removal system is turned on, the turning-on rate of woodworking machine tools is usually less than half of the corresponding suction hood. This not only causes the system start-up utilization rate is not high (power waste is too big), the investment cost is large, and the role is not good. Because the design of pneumatic dust removal involves pressure balance in the main road, it is difficult to change once built. In the future, before the system, the process production path within the scope of the system must be designed scientifically, can not follow the old system, dust removal system design must be in line with the market. It is suggested that the new system should be composed of small and multiple small systems, especially multi-storey industrial plants, with air handling capacity between l0000 and l5000 cubic meters per hour, adopting the principle of negative pressure pneumatic bag dust removal, internal ultra-low pressure technology, fan built-in, automatic dust removal, intelligent induction and automatic control (variable air volume, wind pressure) when starting up. ), energy conservation and consumption reduction.
 
 
 
厂房工艺布置设计要“闹静分区”
 
Workshop layout design should be "quiet and quiet".
 
 
 
木工机床噪声频率高,噪声是危害治理的重点之一,特别是圆锯机产生的噪音,它是人耳最敏感的噪声区,对工人健康影响最大,多数木工圆锯机空转噪声在90dB(A)以上。控制噪声主要从两方面着手,一是木工机床本身的结构改进,二是在厂房工艺布置设计上,一定要“闹静分区”,将主要、常用设备集中布置在设备间,设备间建筑体的平面采用降噪结构处理,这种工艺布置不仅降噪还有利于除尘设计,对车间清洁化生产效果很好。
 
Woodworking machine noise frequency is high, noise is one of the key hazards to control, especially the noise produced by circular saw, it is the most sensitive noise area of the human ear, the greatest impact on workers'health, most woodworking circular saw idling noise above 90 dB (A). Noise control is mainly carried out from two aspects: first, the structural improvement of woodworking machine tools themselves; second, in the process layout design of the workshop, it is necessary to "noise and quiet zoning". The main and commonly used equipment is centralized in the equipment room, and the plane of the building between the equipment room is treated by noise reduction structure. This process arrangement is not only beneficial to noise reduction, but also beneficial to the plant layout. The dust removal design has a good effect on clean production in the workshop.


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